For one double-crust pie or two single-crust pies.
1. Put all ingredients but the ice water in a large bowl.
2. With clean hands, quickly smoosh the mixture together, or use a pastry blender with an up and down motion, until the ingredients look like cracker crumbs with lumps the size of peas and almonds. The lumps make flakey pies.
3. Sprinkle ice water over the mixture, and stir lightly with a fork.
4. Squeeze a handful of dough to see if it holds together. Mix in more water as needed.
5. Divide dough in half, and make two chubby discs about 5 inches (12 cm) across.
6. Wrap discs separately in plastic wrap, and chill for about an hour.
For more information please visit artofthepie.com.
"Vegetables are perishable, so we don't have any indication of what they looked like 500 years ago," says James Nienhuis, a professor in the Department of Horticulture at the University of Wisconsin.